Sex differences in sport-related concussion long-term outcomes

Int J Psychophysiol. 2018 Oct;132(Pt A):9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Sep 18.


Approximately 1.6 to 3.8 million recreational and sports-related concussions (SRC) occur each year in the Unites States. Research suggest that female athletes are at a greater risk for a SRC compared to male athletes competing in comparable sports (i.e., soccer, basketball). Moreover, female athletes have reported more total symptoms and greater neurocognitive impairments following a SRC. Female athletes have been found to report greater symptom provocation as measured by the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS), and increased brain activation compared to males. There is a scarcity of research on long-term effects of SRC in male and female athletes. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to summarize the existing literature on sex differences in acute and sub-acute SRC outcomes.

Keywords: Electrophysiology; Neurocognitive; Sex differences; Symptoms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Injuries / complications
  • Athletic Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Brain Concussion / complications
  • Brain Concussion / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Concussion / physiopathology*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / diagnostic imaging
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / etiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Vestibule, Labyrinth / physiopathology*