Two Novel Salmonella Bivalent Vaccines Confer Dual Protection against Two Salmonella Serovars in Mice

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017 Sep 4;7:391. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00391. eCollection 2017.


Non-typhoidal Salmonella includes thousands of serovars that are leading causes of foodborne diarrheal illness worldwide. In this study, we constructed three bivalent vaccines for preventing both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport infections by using the aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Asd)-based balanced-lethal vector-host system. The constructed Asd+ plasmid pCZ11 carrying a subset of the Salmonella Newport O-antigen gene cluster including the wzx-wbaR-wbaL-wbaQ-wzy-wbaW-wbaZ genes was introduced into three Salmonella Typhimurium mutants: SLT19 (Δasd) with a smooth LPS phenotype, SLT20 (Δasd ΔrfbN) with a rough LPS phenotype, and SLT22 (Δasd ΔrfbN ΔpagL::T araC PBADrfbN) with a smooth LPS phenotype when grown with arabinose. Immunoblotting demonstrated that SLT19 harboring pCZ11 [termed SLT19 (pCZ11)] co-expressed the homologous and heterologous O-antigens; SLT20 (pCZ11) exclusively expressed the heterologous O-antigen; and when arabinose was available, SLT22 (pCZ11) expressed both types of O-antigens, while in the absence of arabinose, SLT22 (pCZ11) expressed only the heterologous O-antigen. Exclusive expression of the heterologous O-antigen in Salmonella Typhimurium decreased the swimming ability of the bacterium and its susceptibility to polymyxin B. Next, the crp gene was deleted from the three recombinant strains for attenuation purposes, generating the three bivalent vaccine strains SLT25 (pCZ11), SLT26 (pCZ11), and SLT27 (pCZ11), respectively. Groups of BALB/c mice (12 mice/group) were orally immunized with 109 CFU of each vaccine strain twice at an interval of 4 weeks. Compared with a mock immunization, immunization with all three vaccine strains induced significant serum IgG responses against both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport LPS. The bacterial loads in the mouse tissues were significantly lower in the three vaccine-strain-immunized groups than in the mock group after either Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Newport lethal challenge. All of the mice in the three vaccine-immunized groups survived the lethal Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. In contrast, SLT26 (pCZ11) and SLT27 (pCZ11) conferred full protection against lethal Salmonella Newport challenge, but SLT25 (pCZ11) provided only 50% heterologous protection. Thus, we developed two novel Salmonella bivalent vaccines, SLT26 (pCZ11) and SLT27 (pCZ11), suggesting that the delivery of a heterologous O-antigen in attenuated Salmonella strains is a prospective approach for developing Salmonella vaccines with broad serovar coverage.

Keywords: O-antigen; Salmonella newport; Salmonella typhimurium; bivalent vaccines; protection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arabinose / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Immunization
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mutation / genetics
  • O Antigens / genetics
  • O Antigens / immunology
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Salmonella Infections / prevention & control*
  • Salmonella Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Salmonella Vaccines / immunology*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Salmonella typhimurium / immunology*
  • Serogroup
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology*
  • Virulence


  • O Antigens
  • Salmonella Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Arabinose