Methionine is an aliphatic, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid, and a precursor of succinyl-CoA, homocysteine, cysteine, creatine, and carnitine. Recent research has demonstrated that methionine can regulate metabolic processes, the innate immune system, and digestive functioning in mammals. It also intervenes in lipid metabolism, activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as methionine sulfoxide reductase A, and the biosynthesis of glutathione to counteract oxidative stress. In addition, methionine restriction prevents altered methionine/transmethylation metabolism, thereby decreasing DNA damage and carcinogenic processes and possibly preventing arterial, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the role of methionine in metabolism, oxidative stress, and related diseases.
Keywords: Cancer; Disease; Endogenous antioxidant enzyme; Mammalian; Methionine; ROS.