A Multicenter Real-Life Study on the Effect of Flash Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017 Sep;19(9):533-540.


Aim: To assess the efficacy of ambulatory glucose profiling (AGP) generated by FreeStyle LibrePro flash glucose monitoring (FCGM) on glycemic control in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: Clinical and biochemical data were obtained from 5072 patients with diabetes who had an A1c ≥7% (2536 who had been initiated on FCGM-based AGP between March 2015 and October 2016 [cases] and 2536 age-, gender-, A1c-, site- and time-matched controls who were not initiated on AGP) across seven diabetes clinics in India. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were obtained through standardized techniques. Fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin(A1c) were estimated before and after initiation of AGP.

Results: Overall, there was a significant decrease in A1c both in cases and controls; however, the magnitude of reduction was higher among cases (1% vs.0.7%; P < 0.001).The overall reduction in A1c among cases was higher in T2D (9.2% to 8.3%) compared with T1D (9.6% to 9.4%); however, the absolute difference in A1c reduction between cases and controls was higher among T1D (0.5% vs. 0.2%) patients. The reduction in glycemic parameters was irrespective of age or gender (P for trend <0.001) across all study sites. The greatest reductions in A1c were noted within 6 months of AGP initiation. Multiple logistic regression showed that those who did not use AGP had a 1.42 higher risk (95% CI: 1.24-1.64) of not achieving even 0.1% reduction in A1c compared with those who were initiated on AGP even after adjusting for age, gender, body-mass index, systolic blood pressure, time to follow-up A1c, and medication use.

Conclusions: This study shows that FCGM-based AGP with FreeStyle LibrePro is associated with significant reductions in A1c levels in both T1D and T2D. In addition, improvement in A1c levels was maintained across all age groups and in patients enrolled at different diabetes clinics in India.

Keywords: Ambulatory glucose profile; Continuous glucose monitoring; Diabetes; Glycated hemoglobin; Glycemic control; Indians..

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Complications / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Complications / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / adverse effects
  • Electronic Health Records
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human