Highly ordered interactions between immune and metabolic responses are evolutionarily conserved and paramount for tissue and organismal health. Disruption of these interactions underlies the emergence of many pathologies, particularly chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we examine decades of research identifying the complex immunometabolic signaling networks and the cellular and molecular events that occur in the setting of altered nutrient and energy exposures and offer a historical perspective. Furthermore, we describe recent advances such as the discovery that a broad complement of immune cells play a role in immunometabolism and the emerging evidence that nutrients and metabolites modulate inflammatory pathways. Lastly, we discuss how this work may eventually lead to tangible therapeutic advancements to promote health.
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