Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute.
Methods: We compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2.93μg/mmol and/or fractional phosphate excretion >20% with plasma phosphate <0.8 mmol/L) in 596 HIV-infected and 544 HIV-uninfected AGEhIV Cohort Study participants. We also assessed whether being HIV-infected on cART, with follow-up censored when cART regimen was modified, was associated with greater eGFR decline or worsening albuminuria (increase ≥10%/year with change in albuminuria category).
Results: Human immunodeficiency virus infection was independently associated with renal impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-4.4), albuminuria (aOR = 5.8; 95% CI = 3.7-9.0), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (aOR = 7.0; 95% CI = 4.9-10.2]). Among 377 HIV-infected and 479 HIV-uninfected individuals (median follow-up = 3.9/4.1 years, respectively) included in longitudinal analyses, being HIV-infected and remaining on unmodified cART was independently associated with greater eGFR decline (-0.56; 95% CI = -0.87 to -0.24 mL/min/1.73m2/year) and worsening albuminuria (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-4.0).
Conclusions: In these middle-aged individuals, HIV infection was independently associated with renal impairment, albuminuria, and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals on cART (predominantly containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) were also more likely to experience eGFR decline and worsening albuminuria compared with HIV-uninfected individuals.
Keywords: HIV infection; albuminuria; proximal renal tubular dysfunction; renal impairment; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
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