Gut hormones are known to play an important role in long-term weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. However, the interplay between gut hormones and diet-induced weight changes remains unclear. Our aims were to evaluate the alterations of gut hormones in diet-induced weight loss, weight maintenance, and weight regain periods. Available studies were searched on MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Web of science from inception to October 2016. After selection, 16 studies with 656 participants were included. Based on current evidence, we found significant alterations of gut hormones induced by different diets. In weight-loss diets, decreased fasting total PYY, GLP-1, CCK, GIP, PP, and amylin along with increased ghrelin levels were observed in most studies. After weight loss, the persistent decreases of fasting total PYY and GLP-1 levels as well as increased appetite were reported, suggesting the profound impact of altered gut hormones on later weight regain after dietary intervention. The differences between diet-induced changes in gut hormones and other treatments such as bariatric surgery and exercise are also discussed in this review. Although significant alterations of gut hormones were found during weight changes, huge heterogeneity exists in methods and populations. More large-scale studies with elaborate design addressing the gut hormone alterations in dietary weight regulation are required in the future.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.