Aims: An anti-angiogenic cleaved prolactin fragment is considered causal for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Experimental and first clinical observations suggested beneficial effects of the prolactin release inhibitor bromocriptine in PPCM.
Methods and results: In this multicentre trial, 63 PPCM patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35% were randomly assigned to short-term (1W: bromocriptine, 2.5 mg, 7 days) or long-term bromocriptine treatment (8W: 5 mg for 2 weeks followed by 2.5 mg for 6 weeks) in addition to standard heart failure therapy. Primary end point was LVEF change (delta) from baseline to 6 months assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Bromocriptine was well tolerated. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 28 ± 10% to 49 ± 12% with a delta-LVEF of + 21 ± 11% in the 1W-group, and from 27 ± 10% to 51 ± 10% with a delta-LVEF of + 24 ± 11% in the 8W-group (delta-LVEF: P = 0.381). Full-recovery (LVEF ≥ 50%) was present in 52% of the 1W- and in 68% of the 8W-group with no differences in secondary end points between both groups (hospitalizations for heart failure: 1W: 9.7% vs. 8W: 6.5%, P = 0.651). The risk within the 8W-group to fail full-recovery after 6 months tended to be lower. No patient in the study needed heart transplantation, LV assist device or died.
Conclusion: Bromocriptine treatment was associated with high rate of full LV-recovery and low morbidity and mortality in PPCM patients compared with other PPCM cohorts not treated with bromocriptine. No significant differences were observed between 1W and 8W treatment suggesting that 1-week addition of bromocriptine to standard heart failure treatment is already beneficial with a trend for better full-recovery in the 8W group.
Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, study number: NCT00998556.
Keywords: Bromocriptine; Peripartum cardiomyopathy; Prolactin; heart failure.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology