The hepatic lipase (LIPC) locus is a well-established determinant of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, an association that is modified by dietary fat in observational studies. Dietary interventions are lacking. We investigated dietary modulation of LIPC rs1800588 (-514 C/T) for lipids and glucose using a randomized crossover design comparing a high-fat Western diet and a low-fat traditional Hispanic diet in individuals of Caribbean Hispanic descent (n = 42, 4 wk/phase). No significant gene-diet interactions were observed for HDL-C. However, differences in dietary response according to LIPC genotype were observed. In major allele carriers (CC/CT), HDL-C (mmol/l) was higher following the Western diet compared with the Hispanic diet: phase 1 (Western: 1.3 ± 0.03; Hispanic: 1.1 ± 0.04; P = 0.0004); phase 2 (Western: 1.4 ± 0.03; Hispanic: 1.2 ± 0.03; P = 0.0003). In contrast, HDL-C in TT individuals did not differ by diet. Only major allele carriers benefited from the higher-fat diet for HDL-C. Secondarily, we explored dietary fat quality and rs1800588 for HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) in a Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS) subset matched for diabetes and obesity status (subset n = 384). In the BPRHS, saturated fat was unfavorably associated with HDL-C and TG in rs1800588 TT carriers. LIPC rs1800588 appears to modify plasma lipids in the context of dietary fat. This new evidence of genetic modulation of dietary responses may inform optimal and personalized dietary fat advice and reinforces the importance of studying genetic markers in diet and cardiometabolic health.
Keywords: Boston Puerto Rican Health Study; Caribbean Hispanics; LIPC; dietary fat; hepatic lipase; intervention.