The Gluten-Free Diet in the 3rd Millennium: Rules, Risks and Opportunities

Diseases. 2015 Jul 13;3(3):136-149. doi: 10.3390/diseases3030136.


The gluten-free diet has long been considered the standard treatment for celiac disease. However, a significant number of patients continue to experience persistent symptoms despite following a gluten-free diet. Inadvertent gluten ingestion, fermentable carbohydrates, cross-contamination, and social or financial burdens present obstacles to maintaining a gluten-free diet. Proper diet education and follow-up by an expert Registered Dietitian (RD) is essential to ensure adequate nutrition on the gluten-free diet. Patients may experience unintended weight gain or elevated cholesterol levels after initiating the gluten-free diet due to adequate absorption and healing of the intestines. This review deals with the evolving gluten-free diet, optimal recommendations while considering the overall health of patients, and multi-factorial aspects of the permanent lifestyle change.

Keywords: celiac disease; cross-contamination; diet; gluten-free; nutrition.

Publication types

  • Review