Dysmenorrhea and related disorders

F1000Res. 2017 Sep 5:6:1645. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.11682.1. eCollection 2017.


Dysmenorrhea is a common symptom secondary to various gynecological disorders, but it is also represented in most women as a primary form of disease. Pain associated with dysmenorrhea is caused by hypersecretion of prostaglandins and an increased uterine contractility. The primary dysmenorrhea is quite frequent in young women and remains with a good prognosis, even though it is associated with low quality of life. The secondary forms of dysmenorrhea are associated with endometriosis and adenomyosis and may represent the key symptom. The diagnosis is suspected on the basis of the clinical history and the physical examination and can be confirmed by ultrasound, which is very useful to exclude some secondary causes of dysmenorrhea, such as endometriosis and adenomyosis. The treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone or combined with oral contraceptives or progestins.

Keywords: Dysmenorrhea; adenomyosis; endometriosis; menstrual disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.