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Clinical Trial
. 2017 Oct;12(8):896-905.
doi: 10.1177/1747493017701147. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke (DEFUSE 3)

Free PMC article
Clinical Trial

A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke (DEFUSE 3)

Gregory W Albers et al. Int J Stroke. .
Free PMC article


Rationale Early reperfusion in patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke is effective in patients with large vessel occlusion. No randomized data are available regarding the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy beyond 6 h from symptom onset. Aim The aim of the study is to demonstrate that, among patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion who have a favorable imaging profile on computed tomography perfusion or magnetic resonance imaging, endovascular therapy with a Food and Drug Administration 510 K-cleared mechanical thrombectomy device reduces the degree of disability three months post stroke. Design The study is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, phase III, adaptive, blinded endpoint, controlled trial. A maximum of 476 patients will be randomized and treated between 6 and 16 h of symptom onset. Procedures Patients undergo imaging with computed tomography perfusion or magnetic resonance diffusion/perfusion, and automated software (RAPID) determines if the Target Mismatch Profile is present. Patients who meet both clinical and imaging selection criteria are randomized 1:1 to endovascular therapy plus medical management or medical management alone. The individual endovascular therapist chooses the specific device (or devices) employed. Study outcomes The primary endpoint is the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin Scale at day 90. The secondary endpoint is the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at day 90 (indicating functional independence). Analysis Statistical analysis for the primary endpoint will be conducted using a normal approximation of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (the generalized likelihood ratio test).

Trial registration: NCT02586415.

Keywords: Acute ischemic stroke; brain imaging; clinical trial; endovascular; imaging based selection; recanalization.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of conflicting interests

The author(s) declared the following potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Drs Gregory W Albers and Roland Bammer have equity interest and are consultants for iSchemaView.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Study flow diagram.
Figure 2
Figure 2
RAPID mismatch map. The RAPID mismatch summary map allows investigators to quickly, accurately, and easily determine if the patient meets the imaging criteria for enrollment. The case shown here meets the Target Mismatch criteria: core volume is <70 ml, mismatch ratio is ≥1.8 and mismatch volume is ≥15 ml.

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