GOLD 2017 treatment pathways in 'real life': An analysis of the DACCORD observational study

Respir Med. 2017 Oct:131:77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.08.008. Epub 2017 Aug 9.


Introduction: The 2017 update to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy document includes recommendations for treatment intensification or step-down in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although recognises that limited supporting information is available. DACCORD is an ongoing observational, non-interventional study, recruiting patients following COPD maintenance treatment change or initiation, a subset of whom were receiving a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) plus a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) fixed-dose combination (FDC) on entry. Since there were no requirements in terms of prior medication (and no washout before commencing LABA/LAMA FDC), this provides an opportunity to generate 'real world' data to test the GOLD 2017 recommendations.

Methods: To reduce heterogeneity, the current analyses include patients receiving indacaterol/glycopyrronium at baseline, and who, prior to the study, were receiving no COPD maintenance medication ('none'), LABA or LAMA monotherapy ('mono'), LABA plus inhaled corticosteroid (ICS; 'LABA/ICS'), or triple therapy ('triple'). At the baseline visit, data collected included: demographic and disease characteristics; COPD Assessment Test (CAT); and exacerbations in the 6 months prior to entry. At 3, 6, 9 and 12 months data on exacerbations were collected, with CAT recorded at 3 and 12 months.

Results: A total of 2724 patients were included in the baseline analyses: 795, 954, 598 and 377 in the 'none', 'mono', 'LABA/ICS' and 'triple' subgroups, respectively. There were no clinically relevant differences in baseline demographics between the four groups. In terms of disease characteristics, the 'triple' group had the highest proportion of patients with a disease duration of more than 1 year since diagnosis and with severe/very severe airflow limitation, but a similar percentage of non-exacerbators compared to the 'none' group. Over the 1-year follow-up, the majority of patients in all four subgroups did not exacerbate (exacerbation rates 0.16, 0.19, 0.21, and 0.26 in the 'none', 'mono', 'LABA/ICS' and 'triple' groups, respectively). At 12 months, 61.4%, 65.0%, 71.0% and 52.4% of patients had a clinically relevant improvement in CAT score.

Conclusions: Overall, the results support the GOLD recommendations in suggesting that a switch from a mono-bronchodilator or LABA plus ICS to LABA/LAMA FDC is a valid treatment option for patients with COPD. The results also validate the use of a LABA/LAMA FDC as initial maintenance treatment for COPD, and provide first 'real world' evidence to support the newly added 'step down' recommendation (from triple to LABA/LAMA FDC).

Keywords: Bronchodilator agents; Drug therapy; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use*
  • Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists / therapeutic use*
  • Aged
  • Critical Pathways*
  • Disease Management
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Glycopyrrolate / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Indans / therapeutic use*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Maintenance Chemotherapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / drug therapy*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology
  • Quinolones / therapeutic use*


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists
  • Drug Combinations
  • Indans
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Quinolones
  • indacaterol-glycopyrronium combination
  • Glycopyrrolate