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. 2017 Sep 26;23:313-325.
doi: 10.12659/MSMBR.905056.

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activities of Lebanese Ephedra Campylopoda Plant

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Free PMC article

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activities of Lebanese Ephedra Campylopoda Plant

Hany Kallassy et al. Med Sci Monit Basic Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to identify the phytochemical content and evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative capacities of various solvent extracts of Ephedra campylopoda stems.

Material/Methods: Fresh stems were suspended in 3 different solvent systems, including distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. The chemical composition was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the content of essential oil of this plant species was determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH radical scavenging and Fe2+-chelating activity assays. Anti-inflammatory capacity was estimated by both evaluating RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells-mediated secretion of PGE2 using ELISA technique, and quantifying the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-α, IL-β and IL-6), chemokines (CCL3 and CCL4), and inflammation-inducible COX-2 and iNOS enzymes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The antiproliferative potential was determined using the XTT viability assay.

Results: Our results showed that the alcoholic extracts were better than the aqueous one in terms of their chemical composition. In parallel, the alcoholic extracts showed more potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative capacities than aqueous extract.

Conclusions: Our observations suggest that Ephedra campylopoda plant could be a promising resource of natural products with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative capacities.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Antioxidants; Chemical Fractionation.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
GC chromatogram of the water extract of E. Campylopoda stem.
Figure 2
Figure 2
GC chromatogram of the ethanol extract of E. Campylopoda stem.
Figure 3
Figure 3
GC chromatogram of the methanol extract of E. Campylopoda stem.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Impact of Ephedra campylopoda stem extracts on LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, PGE2, IL-1α, IL-1-β, IL-6, CCL3, and CCL4 levels in RAW 264.7 cells. Cells were treated for 24 h with 100 ng/ml LPS in the absence or presence of 50 or 100 μg/ml of either aqueous (A), ethanol (E), or methanol (M) extract. Total RNA was isolated and qRT-PCR was carried out to quantify the mRNA levels of COX-2 (A), iNOS (B), IL-1α (D), IL-1β (E), IL-6 (F), CCL3 (G), and CCL4 (H). The presented data correspond to the relative mRNA levels (values obtained in: RAW 264.7 cells treated with both LPS and extract/RAW 264.7 cells treated with only LPS). (C) Cell-free supernatants were harvested and assayed for PGE2 content via ELISA. The data correspond to the relative percentage of PGE2. Reported values represent the averages ±SEM of 3 independent experiments (n=3) each done in triplicate. * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 vs. control untreated cells (Student’s t-test).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Impact of Ephedra campylopoda stem extracts on Jurkat cells proliferation. Cells were treated with various concentrations (0, 5, 25, 50, 100, 200 μg/ml) of stem extracts for 24, 48, and 72 h, and XTT assay was used to assess their antiproliferative potential. Each value represents a mean ±SEM for 3 independent experiments (n=3), each done in triplicate. Fresh stem-derived aqueous extract (A), ethanol extract (B), and methanol extract (C). * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 vs. control untreated cells (Student’s t-test).

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