Objective: Translations of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) have proliferated in recent years, with increasing expansion to digital formats. Although these DPP translations have consistently shown favorable clinical outcomes, long-term data for digital formats are limited. This study's objective was to examine clinical outcomes up to 3 years post-baseline and the relationship between program engagement and clinical outcomes in a digital DPP.
Research design and methods: In a single-arm, non-randomized trial, 220 patients previously diagnosed with prediabetes were enrolled in the Omada Health Program, a commercially available, 16-week DPP-based weight loss intervention followed by an ongoing weight maintenance intervention. Changes in body weight and A1c were assessed annually. Relationships between program engagement during the first year and clinical outcomes across 3 years were examined.
Results: Participants were socioeconomically diverse (62% women, 50.2% non-Hispanic white, 51.7% college educated or higher). From baseline to 3 years, those participants who completed four or more lessons and nine or more lessons achieved significant sustained weight loss (-3.0% and -2.9%, respectively) and an absolute reduction in A1c (-0.31 and -0.33, respectively) with an average remission from the prediabetes range to the normal glycemic range. Factor analysis of engagement metrics during the first year revealed two underlying dimensions, one comprising lesson completion and health behavior tracking consistency, and the other comprising website logins and group participation. When these two factors were used to predict weight loss, only the logins and group participation factor was a significant predictor of weight loss at 16 weeks and 1 year.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates significant long-term reductions in body weight and A1c in a digital DPP and identifies patterns of program engagement that predict weight loss.
Keywords: health behavior; obesity; prediabetes; weight loss program.