Going Gluten Free: the History and Nutritional Implications of Today's Most Popular Diet

Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2017 Sep 25;19(11):54. doi: 10.1007/s11894-017-0597-2.


Purpose of review: The gluten-free diet (GFD) has become one of the most popular diets in modern history. Claims of improved health and increased energy fuel this popularity, though there is little evidence to substantiate these claims. The present review focuses on outlining known gluten-related disorders (GRD), discussing the GFD in the general population, exploring nutritional considerations, and providing advice for physicians in managing these patients.

Recent findings: Currently, about a quarter of the population reports keeping a GFD despite GRDs affecting less than half of these individuals. Reduced intake of calcium, B vitamins, and fiber as well as enhanced consumption of fat and simple carbohydrates has consistently been reported and needs to be continually addressed. Although a necessity in proper management of GRDs, unforeseen nutritional complications may develop in patients who are gluten free for which enhanced physician awareness is vital to achieving optimal patient care.

Keywords: Celiac disease; Gluten-free diet; Gluten-related disorder; Non-celiac gluten sensitivity; Nutrition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoimmune Diseases / diet therapy
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy
  • Diet, Gluten-Free* / adverse effects
  • Dietary Carbohydrates*
  • Dietary Fats*
  • Dietary Proteins*
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / immunology
  • Micronutrients
  • Triticum / immunology


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Micronutrients