Effective Interventions for Diabetes Patients by Community Pharmacists: A Meta-analysis of Pharmaceutical Care Components

Ann Pharmacother. 2018 Feb;52(2):198-211. doi: 10.1177/1060028017733272. Epub 2017 Sep 26.


Objective: To evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included interventions provided by community pharmacists for patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, the analysis of each component of the intervention(s), and the description of the training that the pharmacists received.

Data sources: The literature research was conducted in PubMed and in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 2000 to April 2016) for RCTs with interventions provided by community pharmacists for patients with diabetes. Corresponding authors were contacted about missing data and intervention and training design.

Study selection and data extraction: RCTs published in English or German were included if pharmaceutical care or medication therapy management was conducted by community pharmacists with diabetes patients. Basic information, intervention and training design data were extracted.

Data synthesis: The literature research resulted in 11 eligible studies for further analysis. The corresponding authors of 6 studies responded to our request and sent their raw data. The calculated meta-analytical effect of 640 analyzed patients was a hemoglobin A1C (A1C) difference of -0.66%, with a 95% CI of -0.86% to -0.45%. The analysis revealed that most intervention elements had a significant positive meta-analytical effect on the A1C values.

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that community pharmacist-led interventions can improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. The most effective intervention components were patient centered and interdisciplinary. Pharmaceutical care interventions should, therefore, include the following components: sending feedback to the physician, setting individual goals, reviewing medication, and assessing patients' health beliefs and medication knowledge.

Keywords: community practice; diabetes; medication therapy management; meta-analysis; pharmaceutical care.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Pharmaceutical Services*
  • Pharmacists*
  • Professional Role
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human