The Role of Ellis-Van Creveld 2(EVC2) in Mice During Cranial Bone Development

Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2018 Jan;301(1):46-55. doi: 10.1002/ar.23692. Epub 2017 Oct 6.


EvC syndrome is a type of autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia. Previous case studies in patients suggest abnormal craniofacial development, in addition to dwarfism and tooth abnormalities. To investigate how craniofacial development is affected in EvC patients, surface models were generated from micro-CT scans of control mice, Evc2 global mutant mice and Evc2 neural crest-specific mutant mice. The anatomic landmarks were placed on the surface model to assess the morphological abnormalities in the Evc2 mutants. Through analyzing the linear and angular measurements between landmarks, we identified a smaller overall skull, shorter nasal bone, shorter frontal bone, and shorter cranial base in the Evc2 global mutants. By comparing neural crest-specific Evc2 mutants with control mice, we demonstrated that the abnormalities within the mid-facial regions are not accounted for by the Evc2 mutation within these regions. Additionally, we also identified disproportionate length to width ratios in the Evc2 mutants at all levels from anterior to posterior of the skull. Overall, this study demonstrates a more comprehensive analysis on the craniofacial morphological abnormalities in EvC syndrome and provides the developmental insight to appreciate the impact of Evc2 mutation within the neural crest cells on multiple aspects of skull deformities. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 301:46-55, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: EVC2; LIMBIN; craniofacial development; skull morphology.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Development / genetics*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / diagnostic imaging
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome / diagnostic imaging
  • Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Mutation
  • Neural Crest / cytology
  • Neural Crest / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Skull / abnormalities*
  • Skull / diagnostic imaging
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • EVC2 protein, mouse
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins