An easy and fast adenosine 5'-diphosphate quantification procedure based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry for determination of the in vitro adenosine 5'-triphosphatase activity of the human breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2

J Chromatogr A. 2017 Oct 27:1521:123-130. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.09.034. Epub 2017 Sep 18.


Interactions with the human breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) significantly influence the pharmacokinetic properties of a drug and can even lead to drug-drug interactions. As efflux pump from the ABC superfamily, hBCRP utilized energy gained by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis for the transmembrane movement of its substrates, while adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate were released. The ADP liberation can be used to detect interactions with the hBCRP ATPase. An ADP quantification method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) was developed and successfully validated in accordance to the criteria of the guideline on bioanalytical method validation by the European Medicines Agency. ATP and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were qualitatively included to prevent interferences. Furthermore, a setup consisting of six sample sets was evolved that allowed detection of hBCRP substrate or inhibitor properties of the test compound. The hBCRP substrate sulfasalazine and the hBCRP inhibitor orthovanadate were used as controls. To prove the applicability of the procedure, the effect of amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir on the hBCRP ATPase activity was tested. Nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir were identified as hBCRP ATPase inhibitors and none of the five HIV protease inhibitors turned out to be an hBCRP substrate. These findings were in line with a pervious publication.

Keywords: ADP quantification; HILIC-HR-MS/MS; HIV protease inhibitors; hBCRP ATPase; hBCRP inhibitor; hBCRP substrate.

MeSH terms

  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 / analysis
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 / metabolism*
  • Adenosine Diphosphate / analysis
  • Adenosine Diphosphate / metabolism*
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism*
  • Breast Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Chromatography, Liquid*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Enzyme Assays / methods*
  • Humans
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry*


  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Adenosine Diphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases