Purpose: Active surveillance is emerging as a safe and effective strategy for the management of small renal masses (4 cm or less). We characterized the growth rate and its pertinence to clinical outcomes in a prospective multi-institutional study of patients with small renal masses.
Materials and methods: Since 2009, the DISSRM (Delayed Intervention and Surveillance for Small Renal Masses) prospective, multi-institutional registry of patients with small renal masses has enrolled patients who elect primary intervention or active surveillance. Patients who elect active surveillance received regularly scheduled imaging and those with 3 or more followup images were included in the current study to evaluate growth rates.
Results: We evaluated 318 patients who elected active surveillance, of whom 271 (85.2%) had 3 or more followup images available with a median imaging followup of 1.83 years. The overall mean ± SD small renal mass growth rate was 0.09 ± 1.51 cm per year (median 0.09) with no variables demonstrating statistically significant associations. The growth rate and variability decreased with longer followup (0.54 and 0.07 cm per year at less than 6 months and greater than 1 year, respectively). No patients had metastatic disease or died of kidney cancer. No statistically significant difference was noted in the growth rate in patients with biopsy demonstrated renal cell carcinoma or in those who died.
Conclusions: Small renal mass growth kinetics are highly variable early on active surveillance with growth rates and variability decreasing with time. Early in active surveillance, especially during the initial 6 to 12 months, the growth rate is variable and does not reliably predict death or adverse pathological features in the patient subset with available pathology findings. An elevated growth rate may indicate the need for further assessment with imaging or consideration of biopsy prior to progressing to treatment. Additional followup will inform the best clinical pathway for elevated growth rates.
Keywords: diagnostic imaging; kidney neoplasms; mortality; prognosis; watchful waiting.
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