Implications of prescription drug monitoring and medical cannabis legislation on opioid overdose mortality

J Opioid Manag. Jul/Aug 2017;13(4):229-239. doi: 10.5055/jom.2017.0391.


Objectives: To determine whether specific state legislation has an effect on opioid overdose mortality rates compared to states without those types of legislation.

Design: Ecological study estimating opioid-related mortality in states with and without a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) and/or medical cannabis legislation.

Setting and participants: Opioid-related mortality rates for 50 states and Washington DC from 2011 to 2014 were obtained from CDC WONDER. PDMP data were obtained from the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws, and data on medical cannabis legislation from the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.

Main outcomes and measures: The relationship between PDMPs with mandatory access provisions, medical cannabis legislation, and opioid-related mortality rates.

Methods: Multivariate repeated measures analysis performed with software and services.

Results: Medical cannabis laws were associated with an increase of 21.7 percent in mean age-adjusted opioid-related mortality (p < 0.0001). PDMPs were associated with an increase of 11.4 percent in mean age-adjusted opioid-related mortality (p = 0.005). For every additional year since enactment, mean age-adjusted opioid-related mortality rate increased by 1.7 percent in states with medical cannabis (p = 0.049) and 5.8 percent for states with a PDMP (p = 0.005). Interaction between both types of legislation produced a borderline significant decrease of 10.1 percent (p = 0.055). For every year states had both types of legislation, interaction resulted in a 0.6 percent decrease in rate (p = 0.013).

Conclusion: When combined with the availability of medical cannabis as an alternative analgesic therapy, PDMPs may be more effective at decreasing opioid-related mortality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects*
  • Drug Overdose / mortality*
  • Drug Overdose / prevention & control
  • Drug and Narcotic Control / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Government Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Medical Marijuana*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / mortality*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / prevention & control
  • Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Risk Factors
  • State Government*
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Medical Marijuana