Effectiveness of time-related interventions in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years: a randomized controlled study

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Mar;27(3):329-342. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1052-5. Epub 2017 Sep 27.


Specific problems with time and timing that affect daily routines, homework, school work, and social relations have been recognized in children with ADHD. The primary treatments for children with ADHD do not specifically focus on time-related difficulties. The aim of this randomized controlled study (RCT) was to investigate how multimodal interventions, consisting of training in time-processing ability (TPA) and compensation with time-assistive devices (TAD), affect TPA and daily time management (DTM) in children with ADHD and time difficulties, compared with only educational intervention. Thirty-eight children on stable medication for ADHD in the 9-15-year age range were randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The children's TPA was measured with a structured assessment (KaTid), and the children's DTM was rated by a parent questionnaire (Time-Parent scale) and by children's self-reporting (Time-Self-rating). The intervention consisted of time-skill training and compensation with TAD. Data were analysed for differences in TPA and in DTM between the control and intervention groups in the 24-week follow-up. Children in the intervention group increased their TPA significantly (p = 0.019) more compared to the control group. The largest increase was in orientation to time. In addition, the parents in the intervention group rated their children's DTM as significantly (p = 0.01) improved compared with the parents in the control group. According to the children, their DTM was not significantly changed. In conclusion, a multimodal intervention consisting of time-skill training and TAD improved TPA and DTM in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years.

Keywords: ADHD; Children; Intervention; Time perception; Time-assistive devices.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors