Impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol A on female rats in a two generational study: Genotoxic and immunohistochemical implications

Toxicol Rep. 2016 Aug 28;3:685-695. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.08.008. eCollection 2016.


Environmental xenoestrogen contaminant bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as a monomer in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate plastics and polystyrene resins. However, exposure to BPA has raised concerns, and the negative impacts of its exposure on reproduction have been controversial. The purpose of this work was directed to assess the potential adverse effects of BPA on dam rats and their first generation females in a comparative toxicological study. Fifteen pregnant female rats were classified into three equal groups; first group was orally administered corn oil and served as control (group1), second and third groups were orally administered BPA at dose levels of 50 and 200 mg/kg b.wt respectively (groups 2 & 3). The administration was carried out daily from zero day through the gestation period (21 days) until the last day of the lactation period (21days) and was extended after weaning for three months, in which female off springs of first generation (F1) of the three groups of dams were classified into; F1control group (group 4), F1 group treated with low dose of BPA (group 5) and F1 group treated with high dose of BPA (group 6) which continued in daily oral administration of BPA at the same previously mentioned doses for three months. The results elucidated a clear marked DNA fragmentation in the ovary of both dam and F1 female groups especially at higher examined concentration. Also, the data demonstrated a significant increase in the serum levels of GGT, ALP, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDH and also in the serum level of estrogen hormone. Meanwhile, our study recorded a significant decrease in total protein, catalase, GST, HDL and FSH hormone in both treated dam and F1 female groups which was more significantly decreased in F1 female rats. Moreover, our experiment illustrated up-regulation in the immunoexpression of ERβ in ovary, uterus and liver of dam and F1 female groups. The histopathological investigation showed degeneration in the epithelial lining of ovarian follicles, submucosal leukocytic infiltration and increase in vaculation of hepatic cells with proliferation of kupffer cells. The lesions were more sever in groups 3 & 6 of both dam and their F1 females. Our data speculated that long- term exposure to BPA at 50 and 200 mg/kg.b.wt. depicted total genomic damage, significant alterations in liver enzymes, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive hormones with up-regulation in the expression of ERβ which were more significantly perturbed in group 3 and group 6 of both dam and F1 female rats.

Keywords: DNA damage; Estrogen receptors; Female rats; Reproductive organs.