Fractography and Mechanical Properties of Urethane Dimethacrylate Dental Composites Reinforced with Glass Nanoparticles

J Dent Biomater. 2016 Dec;3(4):327-334.


Statement of problem: Dental resin composites are becoming prevalent in restorative dentistry and have almost replaced amalgam nowadays. Consequently, their mechanical properties and durability are critical.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to produce Pyrex glass nano-particles by wet milling process and use them as reinforcement in dental resins for anterior restorations and then examination of fractographic properties of these composites.

Materials and methods: The glass nano-particles were achieved via wet milling. The surface of the particles was modified with 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (γ-MPTMS) silane in order to improve their surface. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis showed that the silane groups provided double bonds to the surface of the particles and prevented agglomeration. Then, the composite resins were made with different weight percentages of Pyrex glass. The mechanical properties of samples flexural test were evaluated. The required energy for fracture of the specimens was achieved via this test. The fracture surfaces of the samples were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to explain the mechanisms of fracture.

Results: The results and analysis showed that increasing the glass nano-particles mass fraction had a great effect on mechanical properties of the composites due to the mechanisms of crack propagation and crack deflection as well as preventing void formation. The effective energy dissipation mechanisms such as crack pinning and deflection, was observed in SEM micrographs.

Conclusions: Void formation in the low filler content composite is one of the mechanisms to decrease the energy required for fracture of these composites and eventually weaken them.

Keywords: Biomaterials; Dental Composite; Fractography; Glass Nanoparticles; Mechanical Properties.