The Lowe oculocerebrorenal syndrome (OCRL) is characterized by congenital cataract, mental retardation, and defective renal tubular function. A map assignment of OCRL to Xq24-q26 has been made previously by linkage analysis with DXS42 at Xq24-q26 (theta = 0, z = 5.09) and with DXS10 at Xq26 (theta = 0, z = 6.45). Two additional families were studied and three additional polymorphisms were identified at DXS42 by using a 35-kb sequence isolated with the probe detecting the original polymorphism at DXS42. With additional OCRL families made informative for DXS42, theta remained 0 with z = 6.63; and for DXS10 theta = 0.03 and z = 7.07. Evidence for placing OCRL at Xq25 also comes from a female with Lowe syndrome and an X;3 translocation. We have used the Xq25 breakpoint in this patient to determine the position of OCRL relative to the two linked markers. Each derivative chromosome was isolated away from its normal counterpart in somatic cell hybrids. DXS42 was mapped to the derivative chromosome X containing Xpterq25, and DXS10 was mapped to the derivative chromosome 3 containing Xq25-qter. The markers DXS10 and DXS42 therefore show tight linkage with OCRL in six families and flank the Xq25 breakpoint in a female patient with an X;3 translocation. Linkage analysis with flanking markers was used to assess OCRL carrier status in women at risk. Results, when compared with carrier determination by ophthalmologic examination, indicated that the slit-lamp exam can be a sensitive and specific method of carrier determination in many cases.