New hydroxyapatite nanophases with enhanced osteogenic and anti-bacterial activity

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2018 Feb;106(2):521-530. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36249. Epub 2017 Oct 30.


This work describes the synthesis and characterization of new apatite phases co-doped with gallium, magnesium and carbonate, exhibiting osteogenic and antibacterial ability. The apatites are synthesized at low temperature to retain nanocrystallinity and controlled doping with the various bioactive foreign ions, as assessed by physico-chemical and crystallographic analyses, reporting the achievement of single phases with reduced crystal ordering. The analysis of single and multi-doped apatites reports to different mechanisms acting in the incorporation of gallium and magnesium ions in the apatite structure. The release of bioactive ions is correlated to the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells and of different bacterial strands, selected among the most frequently affecting surgical procedures. Enhanced osteogenic and antibacterial ability is assessed in multi-doped apatites, thus suggesting potential future applications as new smart biomaterials integrating a significant boosting of bone regeneration with adequate protection against bacteria. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 521-530, 2018.

Keywords: antibacterial; biomimetic; gallium; osteogenic; substituted apatites.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / cytology
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / genetics
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Shape / drug effects
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Durapatite / chemistry
  • Durapatite / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Ions
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / drug effects
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / enzymology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Osteogenesis* / drug effects
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Ions
  • Durapatite
  • Alkaline Phosphatase