Central nervous system tumours among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years) in Southern and Eastern Europe: Registration improvements reveal higher incidence rates compared to the US

Eur J Cancer. 2017 Nov;86:46-58. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.08.030.

Abstract

Aim: To present incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) derived from registries of Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), US and explore changes due to etiological parameters or registration improvement via evaluating time trends.

Methods: Diagnoses of 11,438 incident malignant CNS tumours in AYAs (1990-2014) were retrieved from 14 collaborating SEE cancer registries and 13,573 from the publicly available SEER database (1990-2012). Age-adjusted incidence rates (AIRs) were calculated; Poisson and joinpoint regression analyses were performed for temporal trends.

Results: The overall AIR of malignant CNS tumours among AYAs was higher in SEE (28.1/million) compared to SEER (24.7/million). Astrocytomas comprised almost half of the cases in both regions, albeit the higher proportion of unspecified cases in SEE registries (30% versus 2.5% in SEER). Similar were the age and gender distributions across SEE and SEER with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and an overall increase of incidence by age. Increasing temporal trends in incidence were documented in four SEE registries (Greater Poland, Portugal North, Turkey-Izmir and Ukraine) versus an annual decrease in Croatia (-2.5%) and a rather stable rate in SEER (-0.3%).

Conclusion: This first report on descriptive epidemiology of AYAs malignant CNS tumours in the SEE area shows higher incidence rates as compared to the United States of America and variable temporal trends that may be linked to registration improvements. Hence, it emphasises the need for optimisation of cancer registration processes, as to enable the in-depth evaluation of the observed patterns by disease subtype.

Keywords: Adolescents and young adults; Brain tumours; Cancer registration; Central nervous system tumours; Epidemiology; Incidence.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Age of Onset
  • Astrocytoma / diagnosis
  • Astrocytoma / epidemiology
  • Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Data Collection
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Regression Analysis
  • SEER Program
  • Sex Distribution
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult