Objective: To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis.
Methods: Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL.
Results: Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, including the apoptosis of spermatogonial cells, primary spermatocytes, and secondary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ).
Conclusions: CER can damage the testicular ultrastructure and increase the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells of the male rat in a time-dependent manner, and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells may be associated with the damage to mitochondria.
目的：观察手机频率(900MHz)电磁辐射对雄性大鼠睾丸组织超微结构和生精细胞凋亡的影响。方法：将30只SPF级健康雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组：正常组、辐射2h组和辐射4h组，每组10只。正常组不辐射，辐射2h组和辐射4h组每天暴露于900MHz手机频率分别辐射2、4h，连续辐射30d。透射电镜观察睾丸组织超微结构的变化，原位末端标记（TUNEL法）检测生精细胞凋亡。结果：与正常组比较，辐射2h组大鼠生精小管基膜肿胀，支持细胞紧密连接分开，细胞间隙明显增大，部分线粒体内出现空泡，见线粒体髓样化，生精细胞凋亡增多［(25.62±1.33)% vs (18.71±1.76)%,P<0.05］,以初级精母细胞凋亡为主；与辐射2h组比较，辐射4h组生精小管基膜肿胀，支持细胞紧密连接分开，细胞间隙明显增大，精原细胞胞膜不完整，可见胞质碎片、胞核固缩和切迹，核周隙轻度扩张，细胞内线粒体畸形，内有空泡，结构模糊，部分嵴融合或消失，其损伤程度增加，生精细胞凋亡增多［(29.93±1.46)% vs (25.62±1.33)%,P<0.05］，精原细胞、初级精母细胞和次级精母细胞均有凋亡。结论：手机频率电磁辐射可造成大鼠睾丸组织超微结构损伤，生精细胞凋亡增加，有时效关系；生精细胞凋亡可能与线粒体损伤有关。.
Keywords: cell apoptosis; cellphone; electromagnetic radiation; male rat; testicular ultrastructure.