The effects of adafenoxate (100 mg/kg), aniracetam (50 mg/kg), meclofenoxate (100 mg/kg), piracetam (250 mg/kg), and standardized ginseng extract-G115 (100 mg/kg) applied for five days were studied with Vogel's conflict procedure in which thirsty naive rats were periodically administered shocks for licking water. The results showed a significant anti-anxiety effect (increases in licking) with adafenoxate and meclofenoxate. Piracetam significantly suppressed licking behaviour and this effect was evaluated as anxiogenic (resulting from the non-specific stimulant action of the drug). Adafenoxate was found to increase also the number of entries into and escapes from the dark compartment without punishment responding. This effect of adafenoxate was considered to be an expression of facilitated conditioned-reflex activity. A beneficial role for the observed anti-anxiety effects of adafenoxate and meclofenoxate in the nootropic action of these drugs is suggested.