Development of urban runoff model FFC-QUAL for first-flush water-quality analysis in urban drainage basins

J Environ Manage. 2018 Jan 1;205:73-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.09.060. Epub 2017 Sep 28.


An urban runoff model that is able to compute the runoff, the pollutant loadings, and the concentrations of water-quality constituents in urban drainages during the first flush was developed. This model, which is referred to as FFC-QUAL, was modified from the existing ILLUDAS model and added for use during the water-quality analysis process for dry and rainy periods. For the dry period, the specifications of the coefficients for the discharge and water quality were used. During rainfall, we used the Clark and time-area methods for the runoff analyses of pervious and impervious areas to consider the effects of the subbasin shape; moreover, four pollutant accumulation methods and the washoff equation for computing the water quality each time were used. According to the verification results, FFC-QUAL provides generally similar output as the measured data for the peak flow, total runoff volume, total loadings, peak concentration, and time of peak concentration for three rainfall events in the Gunja subbasin. In comparison with the ILLUDAS, SWMM, and MOUSE models, there is little difference between these models and the model developed in this study. The proposed model should be useful in urban watersheds because of its simplicity and its capacity to model common pollutants (e.g., biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, Escherichia coli, suspended solids, and total nitrogen and phosphorous) in runoff. The proposed model can also be used in design studies to determine how changes in infrastructure will affect the runoff and pollution loads.

Keywords: Peak concentration; Peak flow; Pollutants; Washoff equation.

MeSH terms

  • Cities
  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Rain
  • Water Movements*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical*
  • Water Quality


  • Water Pollutants, Chemical