Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Drug Resistance Mutations Update

J Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 1;216(suppl_9):S843-S846. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix398.


As treatment options coalesce around a smaller number of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), data are emerging on the drug resistance mutations (DRMs) selected by the most widely used ARVs and on the impact of these DRMs on ARV susceptibility and virological response to first- and later-line treatment regimens. Recent studies have described the DRMs that emerge in patients receiving tenofovir prodrugs, the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors efavirenz and rilpivirine, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, and the integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir. Several small studies have described DRMs that emerge in patients receiving dolutegravir.

Keywords: antiviral drug therapy; human immunodeficiency virus type 1; integrase; protease; reverse transcriptase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Benzoxazines / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Lopinavir / therapeutic use
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Quinolones / therapeutic use
  • Raltegravir Potassium / therapeutic use
  • Rilpivirine / therapeutic use
  • Tenofovir / therapeutic use


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Benzoxazines
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • JTK 303
  • Quinolones
  • Lopinavir
  • Raltegravir Potassium
  • Tenofovir
  • dolutegravir
  • Rilpivirine
  • efavirenz