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. 2017 Nov 27;216(9):1099-1103.
doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix458.

Detection of Host Response to Viral Respiratory Infection by Measurement of Messenger RNA for MxA, TRIM21, and Viperin in Nasal Swabs

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Free PMC article

Detection of Host Response to Viral Respiratory Infection by Measurement of Messenger RNA for MxA, TRIM21, and Viperin in Nasal Swabs

Mohamed Yahya et al. J Infect Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Respiratory viruses frequently cause symptomatic infections in children but are often detected also in healthy children. We investigated myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), viperin, and tripartite-motif 21 (TRIM21) messenger RNA indexes in nasal swabs as potential biomarkers of viral respiratory infection in children. Respiratory viruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction in the same swabs. Nasal MxA and viperin indexes were increased in symptomatic virus-positive children. Nasal viperin index was found to be a robust marker of viral respiratory tract infection with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 94% in distinguishing children with symptomatic virus infections from asymptomatic virus-negative children.

Keywords: biomarker; myxovirus resistance protein A; respiratory viruses; tripartite-motif 21; viperin.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Nasal myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), tripartite-motif 21 (TRIM21), and viperin indexes represent the messenger RNA (mRNA) copy number of the respective protein multiplied by 1000 and divided by β-actin mRNA copy number. The boxes represent the interquartile range and the whiskers the maximum and minimum values excluding outliers. Outliers are marked by a circle and extreme outliers by an asterisk. The percentages of values above the cutoff level (horizontal line), derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, are shown above different groups. Numbers of children are given below the groups. MxA indexes in all subjects (A) and in subjects with no live virus vaccine within 30 days prior to sampling (B), according to virus detection and symptoms. In panels A and B, the horizontal reference line represents the nasal MxA index value of 1.21. When all cases are included (A), this reference value yields a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 56% for distinguishing symptomatic virus-positive subjects from asymptomatic virus-negative subjects. When only those without live virus vaccinations are included (B), the cutoff level of 1.21 yields a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 74%. C, The distribution of nasal viperin index according to virus detection and presence of symptoms. The cutoff level of 0.157 yields a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 94%. D, The distribution of nasal TRIM21 index according to virus detection and presence of symptoms. The ROC analysis–derived cutoff level (horizontal line) is set to 0.162. This value yields a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 56%.

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