Objective: DNA-based testing of pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF) is a useful adjunct to the evaluation of pancreatic cysts (PCs). Mutations in KRAS/GNAS are highly specific for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), while TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN alterations are associated with advanced neoplasia. A prospective study was performed to evaluate preoperative PCF DNA testing.
Design: Over 43-months, 626 PCF specimens from 595 patients were obtained by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-fine needle aspiration and assessed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). Molecular results were correlated with EUS findings, ancillary studies and follow-up. A separate cohort of 159 PCF specimens was also evaluated for KRAS/GNAS mutations by Sanger sequencing.
Results: KRAS/GNAS mutations were identified in 308 (49%) PCs, while alterations in TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN were present in 35 (6%) cases. Based on 102 (17%) patients with surgical follow-up, KRAS/GNAS mutations were detected in 56 (100%) IPMNs and 3 (30%) MCNs, and associated with 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity for a mucinous PC. In comparison, KRAS/GNAS mutations by Sanger sequencing had a 65% sensitivity and 100% specificity. By NGS, the combination of KRAS/GNAS mutations and alterations in TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN had an 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity for advanced neoplasia. Ductal dilatation, a mural nodule and malignant cytopathology had lower sensitivities (42%, 32% and 32%, respectively) and specificities (74%, 94% and 98%, respectively).
Conclusions: In contrast to Sanger sequencing, preoperative NGS of PCF for KRAS/GNAS mutations is highly sensitive for IPMNs and specific for mucinous PCs. In addition, the combination of TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN alterations is a useful preoperative marker for advanced neoplasia.
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; pancreatic epidemiology; pancreatic pathology; pancreato-biliary disorders.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.