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Meta-Analysis
. 2017 Oct 3;7(1):12595.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12802-9.

Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies

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Free PMC article
Meta-Analysis

Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies

Jing Wang et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Headache is increasingly being reported as a detrimental effect of mobile phone (MP) use. However, studies aimed to investigate the association between MP use and headache yielded conflicting results. To assess the consistency of the data on the topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cross-sectional studies. Published literature from PubMed and other databases were retrieved and screened, and 7 cross-sectional studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We found that the risk of headache was increased by 38% in MP user compared with non-MP user (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61, p < 0.001). Among MP users, the risk of headache was also increased in those who had longer daily call duration (2-15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.34-1.98, p < 0.001; >15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.76-3.54, p < 0.001) and higher daily call frequency (2-4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76, p < 0.001; >4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.78-3.58, p < 0.001). Our data indicate that MP use is significantly associated with headache, further epidemiologic and experimental studies are required to affirm and understand this association.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram of literature search and study selection.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Forest plot of the association between MP use or not and headache.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Plot of sensitivity analysis by excluding one study each time and the pooling estimate for the rest of the studies.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Forest plot of the association between different MP call duration and headache. (A) Forest plot for 2–15 min group compared with <2 min group; (B) Forest plot for >15 min group compared with <2 min group.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Forest plot of the association between different MP call frequency and headache. (A) Forest plot for 2–4 calls group compared with <2 calls group; (B) Forest plot for >4 calls group compared with <2 calls group.

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