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, 5, e3878

Growth of Hybrid Open Access, 2009-2016


Growth of Hybrid Open Access, 2009-2016

Bo-Christer Björk. PeerJ.


Hybrid Open Access is an intermediate form of OA, where authors pay scholarly publishers to make articles freely accessible within journals, in which reading the content otherwise requires a subscription or pay-per-view. Major scholarly publishers have in recent years started providing the hybrid option for the vast majority of their journals. Since the uptake usually has been low per journal and scattered over thousands of journals, it has been very difficult to obtain an overview of how common hybrid articles are. This study, using the results of earlier studies as well as a variety of methods, measures the evolution of hybrid OA over time. The number of journals offering the hybrid option has increased from around 2,000 in 2009 to almost 10,000 in 2016. The number of individual articles has in the same period grown from an estimated 8,000 in 2009 to 45,000 in 2016. The growth in article numbers has clearly increased since 2014, after some major research funders in Europe started to introduce new centralized payment schemes for the article processing charges (APCs).

Keywords: Open access; Scholarly publishing.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare there are no competing interests.


Figure 1
Figure 1. The evolution of the number of hybrid journals 2009–2017.
Figure 2
Figure 2. The evolution of the number of hybrid articles 2009–2016.

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Grant support

The authors received no funding for this work.

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