While salvage re-irradiation is often used for recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG), there have been few comparisons between various re-radiation dose/fractionation schedules or with bevacizumab alone. We analyzed patients with recurrent HGG who received re-irradiation at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2010 to 2014 (n = 67), as well as those who received bevacizumab alone (n = 177). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to examine factors associated with overall survival (OS). Propensity score modeling was used to compare survival after re-irradiation vs. bevacizumab alone. Median time from initial diagnosis to re-irradiation was 31.4 months. The most common re-irradiation dose/fractionations used were 6 Gy × 5 (36%), 3.5 Gy × 10 (21%), 2.67 Gy × 15 (15%), and 18-20 Gy × 1 (15%). No early or late toxicities >grade 2 were observed. Median PFS and OS after re-irradiation were 4.8 and 10.7 months, respectively. Number of progressions prior to re-irradiation (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3; p = .007), and recurrence in a new brain location (vs. local-only; AHR 7.4; 95% CI, 2.4-23.1; p < .001) were associated with OS; dose/fractionation was not. Compared with bevacizumab alone, re-irradiated patients had a non-significant increase in OS (HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.53-1.23; P = .31). Among patients with a local-only recurrence, there was a trend towards longer median OS after re-irradiation compared to bevacizumab alone (12.4 vs. 8.0 months; p = .12). Survival after re-irradiation for recurrent HGG appears independent of dose/fractionation and compares favorably with bevacizumab alone.
Keywords: Bevacizumab; High grade glioma; Re-irradiation; Salvage; Survival.