Gypenosides Reduced the Risk of Overweight and Insulin Resistance in C57BL/6J Mice through Modulating Adipose Thermogenesis and Gut Microbiota

J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Oct 25;65(42):9237-9246. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03382. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Abstract

This study investigated whether and how gypenosides from jiaogulan tea at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day levels could reduce the development of overweight and insulin resistance in C57 BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet in 12 weeks. The 300 mg/kg/day gypenosides supplement significantly reduced final body weight, plasma total cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index by 19.9%, 40%, and 36%, respectively, compared with the high-fat diet control group. Gypenosides also increased brown adipocyte tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning. The expression of genes involved in mitochondrial activity and fatty acid β-oxidation were also increased in both brown and white adipocyte tissues. In addition, gypenosides at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day levels decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes by 20% and 58.6%, respectively, and increased Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in the gut microbiota.

Keywords: brown adipocyte tissue; gypenosides; insulin resistance; microbiota; obesity; white adipocyte tissue.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue, Brown / drug effects*
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown / metabolism
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown / physiopathology
  • Adipose Tissue, White / drug effects*
  • Adipose Tissue, White / metabolism
  • Adipose Tissue, White / physiopathology
  • Animals
  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / administration & dosage*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Gynostemma / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Obesity
  • Overweight / drug therapy*
  • Overweight / metabolism
  • Overweight / microbiology
  • Overweight / physiopathology
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Thermogenesis / drug effects

Substances

  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Insulin
  • Plant Extracts
  • gypenoside