Background: Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a commonly seen condition with a large clinical spectrum. It ranges from asymptomatic subjects to severely disabled arthritic patients. Posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity.
Methods: This article systematically reviews the published literature from books and journals that were either originally written or later translated into the English language regarding the subject of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction.
Results: Posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is a primary soft tissue tendinopathy of the posterior tibialis that leads to altered foot biomechanics. Although the natural history of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is not fully known, it has mostly been agreed that it is a progressive disorder. While clinical examination is important in diagnosing adult acquired flat-feet; further investigation is often required to delineate the different aetiologies and stage of the disease. The literature describes many different management choices for the different stages of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction.
Conclusion: Because of the wide range of symptom and deformity severity, surgical reconstruction is based on a-la-carte. The consensus is that a plethora of reconstructive options needs to be available and the list of procedures should be tailored to tackle the different symptoms, especially when managing complex multi-planar reconstructions.
Keywords: Adult acquired flatfoot deformity; Calcaneovalgus; Flatfoot; Foot arch; Pes planus; Posterior tibial tendon; Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction; Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency.