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. 2017 Oct 5;11(10):e0005842.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005842. eCollection 2017 Oct.

Hepatitis B Virus Infection as a Neglected Tropical Disease

Free PMC article

Hepatitis B Virus Infection as a Neglected Tropical Disease

Geraldine A O'Hara et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. .
Free PMC article

Conflict of interest statement

MA has received research funding from Gilead.


Fig 1
Fig 1. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) cascade.
Diagrammatic representation of the total burden of HBV infection and the subsets of individuals who are diagnosed (orange), linked to care (green), engaged with care (blue), on treatment (light purple), and have suppressed viremia (dark purple). An estimate of the proportion of cases undiagnosed versus diagnosed (91% versus 9%, respectively) is based on the WHO fact sheet [3]. The proportion who flow from each pool to the next is otherwise represented by a question mark, as these numbers are not represented by robust data.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Resource gap in research funding allocations and academic publications for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and malaria.
Panels A/C: funding data from the United States National Institutes for Health (NIH) estimated funding for research, condition, and disease categories 2013–2018 (*projected figures for 2017 and 2018), available at, downloaded June 2017. For the projected funding allocation for 2018, HCV will receive 2.3-fold HBV funding, malaria 4.8-fold, and HIV 66.8-fold. Research into “malaria” and “malaria vaccine” are subdivided in the source data set but have been pooled in this graphic. Panels B/D: We recorded the number of publications listed on NCBI PubMed based on the search terms “HIV,” “HBV,” “HCV,” and “malaria” for each year from 2007–2016. Example search string for HBV publications in 2016: (HBV[Title]) AND ("2016/01/01"[Date—Publication]: "2016/12/31"[Date—Publication]). Data are represented as absolute numbers (panels A and B) and the proportion of the whole (panels C and D). For hepatitis delta virus (HDV), funding allocation data are not available, and we identified <25 publications/year (range 7–23).
Fig 3
Fig 3. A package of interventions to move towards elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health threat.
Suggested measures are aligned with WHO interventions for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).

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Grant support

PCM is funded by a Wellcome Trust Intermediate Fellowship Grant (ref 110110/Z/15/Z). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.