Liver X Receptor (LXR)-regulated Genes of Cholesterol Trafficking and Breast Cancer Severity

Anticancer Res. 2017 Oct;37(10):5495-5498. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.11979.


Background: Liver X receptor [LXR; nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 2 (NR1H2, alias LXRB)] can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Its relationship with disease severity is not known.

Materials and methods: Expression of LXRB, ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) were determined in 69 breast tumors and were related to clinical stages of the disease and tumor characteristics, as well as time to recurrence.

Results: ABCG1 expression differed with the tumor Scarff Bloom and Richardson (SBR) status (p=0.02), with a lower expression in SBRIII than in SBRII and SBRI. ABCG1 expression was significantly higher in estrogen receptor-positive tumors (N=63) (p=0.02). APOE expression was significantly lower in progesterone receptor-positive tumors (N=55) (p=0.03). No relationship with time to recurrence was observed.

Conclusion: Expression of some LXR-dependent genes is related to breast tumor characteristics, but not time to recurrence. This may be due to a lack of study power or too short a follow-up time.

Keywords: ABCA1; ABCG1; LXR; apolipoprotein E; breast cancer; paraoxonase.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 / genetics
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 / metabolism
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 1 / genetics
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 1 / metabolism
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Apolipoproteins E / genetics
  • Apolipoproteins E / metabolism
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / genetics
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • Cholesterol / metabolism*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Liver X Receptors / genetics*
  • Liver X Receptors / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • ABCA1 protein, human
  • ABCG1 protein, human
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1
  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 1
  • ApoE protein, human
  • Apolipoproteins E
  • Liver X Receptors
  • NR1H2 protein, human
  • Cholesterol
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • PON2 protein, human