Flavonoid Constituents of Phlomis (Lamiaceae) Species Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Phytochem Anal. 2018 Mar;29(2):180-195. doi: 10.1002/pca.2733. Epub 2017 Oct 5.


Introduction: Phlomis is one of the medicinal genera of Lamiaceae. This genus has unique medicinal properties. Consequently, appropriate methods need to be described for the identification of the chemical compounds.

Objective: A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) was used for separation and identification of leaf flavonoid compounds for seven Phlomis species including Phlomis kurdia, Ph. aucheri, Ph. olivieri, Ph. bruguieri, Ph. persica, Ph. anisodonta and Ph. elliptica.

Methodology: The flavonoid solution of air-dried leaves (10.5 g) was extracted using 85% methanol. The chromatogram was treated with three systems: methanol-water, chloroform-methanol and acetic acid. The extracts were analysed using LC-MS/MS. The MS2 detection was performed under negative mode electrospray ionisation (ESI). The identification of constituents was based on authentic references used in the identification process.

Results: A total of 35 chemical compounds were detected from which 32 were identified as flavonoids through comparison with published literature and reference standards. These compounds were distributed in four flavonoid classes. Flavones (12), flavonols (11), flavanones (8) and flavane (1) were the main groups appearing in almost all of the studied samples. The flavonoids such as naringenin, chrysoeriol, eriodictyol, dimethoxyflavanone, apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol and rhamnetin were in high proportions. Moreover, 22 flavonoid compounds were first reported in this study for Phlomis species.

Conclusion: The fragmentation patterns of the compounds during collision induced dissociation (CID) clarified information of the compounds analysed. The detailed flavonoid compositions of Phlomis species provide the appropriate context from phytochemical and phytotherapeutics points of view. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: Lamiaceae; Phlomis; flavonoid; liquid chromatography.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Liquid / methods*
  • Flavonoids / analysis*
  • Phlomis / chemistry*
  • Phlomis / classification
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Species Specificity
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods*


  • Flavonoids
  • Plant Extracts