Urinary tract infection in children: Diagnosis, treatment, imaging - Comparison of current guidelines

J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Dec;13(6):567-573. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.07.018. Epub 2017 Sep 19.


Background and objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequent disorder of childhood, yet the proper approach for a child with UTI is still a matter of controversy. The objective of this study was to critically compare current guidelines for the diagnosis and management of UTI in children, in light of new scientific data.

Methods: An analysis was performed of the guidelines from: American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology, Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS), Polish Society of Pediatric Nephrology, and European Association of Urology (EAU)/European Society for Pediatric Urology (ESPU). Separate aspects of the approach for a child with UTI, including diagnosis, treatment and further imaging studies, were compared, with allowance for recent research in each field.

Conclusions: The analyzed guidelines tried to reconcile recent reports about diagnosis, treatment, and further diagnostics in pediatric UTI with prior practices and opinions, and economic capabilities. There was still a lack of sufficient data to formulate coherent, unequivocal guidelines on UTI management in children, with imaging tests remaining the main area of controversy. As a result, the authors formulated their own proposal for UTI management in children.

Keywords: Congenital anomaly of the kidneys and urinary tract, CAKUT; Recommendations; Urinary tract infection, UTI; Voiding cystourethrogram, VCUG.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / diagnostic imaging
  • Urinary Tract Infections / therapy*