[Epidemiology and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma]

Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2017 Sep 29;43(255):133-139.
[Article in Polish]


Primary liver neoplasms occurs relatively rarely in Poland. The most frequently occurring type of cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which globally constitutes 7% of all the occurrences of cancer. The incidence increases with age and is the highest in patients around the age of 70. It also varies significantly depending on the geographic location. The main factors that cause HCC are infection of HBV and HCV, whose genome integrates into the DNA of the host, causing mutations. The other factors include excessive alcohol consumption, contact or consumption of Aspergillus toxins as well as various metabolic disorders, such as α1-antitrypsin deficiency, hemochromatosis, tyrosinemia, porphyria, von Gierke disease and in person with gene mutation p.I148M of adiponutrin. HCC is usually detected incidentally, during ultrasound examination or during clinical diagnosis of liver failure. HCC can be diagnosed using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is considered the most accurate diagnostic method. A core needle biopsy or the examination of the level of markers such as: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), D-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), tumourassociated glycoprotein 72 (CA 72-4, TAG-72), are advised for a complete diagnostics.

Keywords: epidemiology; hepatocellular carcinoma; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Risk Factors