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Review
. 2017;145:573-577.
doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-802395-2.00036-5.

Comorbidities

Affiliations
Review

Comorbidities

Irina Alafuzoff et al. Handb Clin Neurol. .

Abstract

The term comorbidities or mixed pathologies is used when brain tissue, a surgical sample, or postmortem brain displays a mixture of protein alterations or other pathologies. Most of the alterations when seen in sufficient extent are considered causative, are related to a certain clinical phenotype, i.e., when hyperphosphorylated τ (HPτ) is observed in occipital cortex concomitant with β-amyloid (Aβ), the diagnosis is Alzheimer disease (AD). When HPτ is observed in hippocampal structures in a subject with extensive and widespread α-synuclein pathology, a Lewy body disease (LBD), the HPτ pathology is considered as a concomitant alteration. There are numerous reports indicating that when "concomitant" pathologies are seen in a subject with certain neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical phenotype might be altered. In addition there are those cases where many alterations are seen in a sparse extent, but jointly they lead to a clinical syndrome. Thus today it is not sufficient to confirm a certain pathology to be seen, i.e., AD- or LBD-related; in addition the concomitant aging-related alterations have to be looked for.

Keywords: altered proteins; hyperphosphorylated τ; transactive DNA binding protein 43; vascular lesions; α-synuclin; β-amyloid.

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