In this review the current state of our understanding of endocrine tumors of the pancreas is considered. It is based on the experience with a series of 365 tumors. The first part of the article focuses on origin and classification, markers, frequency, criteria of malignancy as well as general structural features of the pancreatic endocrine tumors. In the second half of the article the functioning tumors, i.e. tumors that cause hormonal syndromes, and the nonfunctioning tumors as well as the endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are dealt with in detail. Special emphasis is put on the immunocytochemical profile and the biological features of the respective tumors.