Purpose of the review: The goal of this review is to provide a guide on surgical decision-making options for complex anterior shoulder instability using a case-based approach.
Recent findings: Arthroscopic Bankart repair is well documented for having successful outcomes in patients with isolated labral tear involvement with minimal bone loss. Latarjet is a generally accepted procedure in patients with 20-30% glenoid bone loss. When bone loss exceeds that which cannot be managed through Latarjet, a range of options exist and are highly dependent upon the extent of osseous deficiency on both the glenoid and humeral sides, surgeon experience, and patient-specific factors. The use of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of chronic locked shoulder dislocations has been described as a successful management option. Treatment options for complex anterior shoulder instability range widely based on patients' presenting exam, surgical history, amount of glenoid bone loss, size of Hill-Sachs lesion, and surgeon preference. When selecting the appropriate surgical intervention, the treating surgeon must consider the patient history, physical exam, and preoperative imaging along with patient expectations.
Keywords: Anterior shoulder instability; Bankart repair; Critical Glenoid Bone Loss; Eden-Hybinette procedure; Latarjet procedure; Pectoralis major transfer; Remplissage; Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.