Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma comprises metastasectomy±systemic medical treatment. Specific immunotherapy after metastasectomy could be a complementary option. In this phase 1/2 study, safety and tolerability of an adjuvant multi-peptide vaccine (UroRCC) after metastasectomy was evaluated together with immune response and efficacy, compared with a contemporary cohort of patients (n=44) treated with metastasectomy only. Nineteen metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients received UroRCC via intradermal or subcutaneous application randomized to immunoadjuvants (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or Montanide). Adverse events of UroRCC were mainly grade I and II; frequency of immune response was higher for major histocompatibility complex class II peptides (17/19, 89.5%) than for major histocompatibility complex class I peptides (8/19, 42.1%). Median overall survival was not reached in the UroRCC group (mean: 112.6 mo, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.1-133.1) and 58.0 mo (95% CI: 32.7-83.2) in the control cohort (p=0.015). UroRCC was an independent prognosticator of overall survival (hazard ratio=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.69, p=0.012). Adjuvant UroRCC multi-peptide vaccine after metastasectomy was well tolerated, immunogenic, and indicates potential clinical benefit when compared with a contemporary control cohort (NCT02429440). PATIENT SUMMARY: The application of a patient-specific peptide vaccine after complete resection of metastases in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients resulted in favorable tolerability and outcome.
Keywords: Adjuvant; GM-CSF; Immunotherapy; Metastasectomy; Metastasis; Renal cell carcinoma; Synthetic peptides; TKI; Vaccination.
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