1. The highly selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, GR38032F, has been tested in five animal models predictive for anxiolytic activity. 2. In the social interaction test in the rat and in a light/dark exploration test in the mouse, GR38032F dose-dependently released suppressed behaviour without modifying locomotor activity. 3. In the cynomolgus monkey and the marmoset, GR38032F reduced anxiety-related symptoms without causing sedation. In the marmoset, the effects were clearly dose-related. 4. GR38032F did not have any detectable activity in the water-lick conflict test in the rat. 5. We conclude that GR38032F is potentially a very potent anxiolytic agent without sedative, anticonvulsant or hypnotic activity.