Efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries in primary molars: 1-year follow-up of a split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial

Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Apr;22(3):1355-1362. doi: 10.1007/s00784-017-2227-7. Epub 2017 Oct 8.


Objective: The main purpose of this split month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was evaluate the efficacy of caries infiltration in controlling the progression of non-cavitated proximal lesions in primary molars. Anxiety and time required for the caries infiltration was also evaluated.

Materials and methods: Fifty healthy children, 5 to 9 years, presenting two primary molars with proximal caries lesions (1/2 of the enamel or outer 1/3 of dentin), were included. Lesions were randomly allocated to the test group (fluoridated toothpaste + flossing + infiltration) or to the control group (fluoridated toothpaste + flossing). Caries risk was based on the Cariogram model. The main outcome after 1-year radiographic follow up was assessed by an independent blinded examiner A facial image scale (FIS) was applied to assess dental anxiety and time required to perform the infiltration was recorded.

Results: Of the sample, 92.9% corresponded to high or medium caries risk. In 42 patients (1-year follow up), caries progression was observed in 11.9% (5/42) of the test lesions compared with 33.3% (14/42) of the control lesions (p < 0.05). Five control and three test lesions progressed to the middle 1/3 of dentin and were restored. No side effects were observed. Anxiety was both low before and after the treatment, and mean time required for the infiltration was 11.29 min (± 1.16 min).

Conclusions: Caries infiltration of proximal caries lesions in primary molars is significantly more efficacious than standard therapy alone (fluoride toothpaste + flossing).

Clinical relevance: Caries infiltration is an applicable and well-accepted method be used in children, representing a promising micro-invasive approach.

Keywords: Caries infiltration; Clinical trials; Efficacy; Primary molars; Proximal lesions; Radiography.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dental Caries / diagnostic imaging
  • Dental Caries / therapy*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Fluorides, Topical / therapeutic use
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Molar
  • Resins, Synthetic / therapeutic use*
  • Tooth, Deciduous


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Fluorides, Topical
  • Resins, Synthetic
  • icon infiltrant