Immunocytochemical techniques were used to study changes in myosin gene expression during the regeneration of the cat posterior temporalis muscle transplanted into the bed of either the fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or the slow soleus muscle. Strips of the posterior temporalis, a homogeneously superfast muscle, were treated with Marcaine and then transplanted into limb muscle beds which had been completely cleared of host muscle fibres. The regenerates were examined 6 to 224 days after surgery. Early regenerates in both muscle beds reacted with antibodies against the heavy chain of foetal, slow and superfast myosins, but not with antibodies against fast myosin. In the long-term, regenerates innervated by the EDL nerve expressed only superfast myosin whereas in the regenerates innervated by the soleus nerve most fibres expressed only slow myosin and only a few fibres reacted exclusively with the anti-superfast myosin antibody even after 210 days. In contrast, EDL and soleus muscles regenerating in their own beds expressed foetal, slow and fast myosin, but did not express superfast myosin. The isometric contraction times of the various types of regenerates reflected the types of myosin synthesized. It is concluded that jaw and limb muscle cells exist as two distinct allotypes, each having a distinct repertoire for the expression of adult isomyosins, and that within that repertoire isomyosin gene expression can be modulated by the nerve. Thus, myosin gene expression in skeletal muscle fibres is regulated by both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms.